Electron Bernstein Wave Heating Research

In high-beta spherical tokamak plasmas, where electron plasma frequency is much larger than electron gyrofrequency, the O- and X- modes are not accessible to the centre of the discharge for the fundamental or second harmonic. The higher harmonics do have accessibility but these modes are very weakly damped and this makes the conventional ECRH unsuitable for a spherical tokamak.

Electron Bernstein waves do not have any density limits and all harmonics are damped very strongly making these waves promising candidates for heating and current drive in spherical tokamkas.